Governments have existed for thousands of years, and while they differ in their form and function, all governments have one central role: to protect its citizens. Governments establish rules for their people, make sure those rules are followed, and judge any conflicts between the rules. They also provide civic amenities and infrastructure, such as schools, roads, and hospitals. They also protect the environment and secure national borders. In addition, governments help their people through social and economic policies.
Governmental structures have been designed to meet the needs of each society. A society, however, only persists if all the parts of its system work together. For example, a society may have social institutions like family, education, religion, and government, which, when working properly, are stable and resilient. If any of these systems falter, the society is vulnerable to change and could eventually collapse.
When adults decide the rules that they want to live by, they establish a government. They choose representatives from their region to represent them. These representatives are often part of a political party, which is a group of people who have similar ideas and philosophy about what the government should do. In democracies, these representatives are directly elected by the people. In authoritarian countries, these leaders are chosen by the ruling party. Many countries combine elements of democratic and authoritarian models.
A government must be able to protect its people by creating and managing laws, providing law enforcement and a fair court system, and building the necessary infrastructure. It must also create and maintain a military to ensure its security from external threats and prevent internal conflict. In addition, it must provide civic amenities and services for the development of its people, such as education, health care, and housing.
In addition, a government must also ensure that its citizens are provided with the basic necessities of life, such as food and water. This requires taxation, which is used to redistribute income and raise money for public goods and services. Governments must also provide for the national defense, address environmental concerns, define property rights, and make markets more competitive.
Lastly, a government must be able to address market failures and prevent crises. This includes managing inflation, stabilizing currency, and attracting foreign investment. Governments must also manage the economy to promote growth and ensure economic stability.
A government must enact the policies and regulations that it thinks will serve its citizens best, whether they are democratic, communist, capitalist, or any other system. It must also create incentives for its officials and citizens to pursue a particular policy. This is because, according to public choice theory, the benefits and costs of specific political actions are not evenly distributed among the stakeholders. This includes special interest groups and lobbyists, who benefit from particular government policies.